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15 Jan 2021

Covid 19 : questo sconosciuto

Articolo di Roberto Molino

Chi avrebbe mai immaginato che un "essere" cosi' piccolo, un virus, avrebbe cambiato radicalmente le nostre giornate? Penso nessuno... Eppure, a fine Febbraio 2020, compare,alle luci della ribalta, questo virus (in Spagna lo chiamano bicho, insetto), sconosciuto, aggressivo, mortale.

La domanda, logica e conseguente, e' : quale e' la sua origine? Ad oggi, si sono formulate varie teorie, nessuna di esse provata, secondo le quali il Covid 19 potrebbe venire da :

  • un pipistrello in Cina (Wuhan)
  • un esperimento di laboratorio in Cina
  • una mutazione della gia' esistente Sars
  • inquinamento atmosferico
  • un virus arcaico, intrappolato nei ghiacciai perenni, e con lo scioglimento dei medesimi, a causa del surriscaldamento globale, salito in superfice

e molte altre ipotesi che potete trovare in Internet. 

La verita' e' che nessuno sa, con certezza, da dove questo organismo venga e da qui la difficolta' nel trovare una cura, un farmaco, che possa salvare le persone che, sfortunatamente, lo contraggono. 

Anche per quanto riguarda il vaccino non ci sono certezze : l'aver isolato una parte del genoma del virus (il "pungiglione" con il quale entra nel nostro corpo attraverso la bocca, il naso, gli occhi) e con questo aver fatto il vaccino, non prova la sua efficacia poiche' se il virus, quando muta, muta non solo il suo Dna ma anche il "pungiglione', il vaccino risulterebbe valido solo per un ceppo, ma non per gli altri. E questo " insetto" ha mutato in dieci mesi ben sette volte!! 

Di certo, guardando la storia di altri virus che non hanno mutato cosi' rapidamente (vedasi ad esempio il virus Hiv che in piu' di 30 anni non hai mai mutato) viene logico pensare che questo maledetto Covid 19 non sia di origine naturale. 

La verita' non si sapra' mai, perche' chi la sa ( e penso che qualcuno sappia), non verra' mai rivelata. Sta di fatto che ogni giorno, guardando la tv o leggendo i quotidiani, apprendiamo di ricoveri, morti, caos... 

Il danno, oltre ad essere a livello sanitario, e' anche a livello economico. Se non c'e' salute non c'e' economia...

Le politiche adottate sin dall'inizio della pandemia, dall'Unione Europea e dai singoli stati membri, sono risultate, a mio modesto avviso, fallimentari e oggi ci troviamo a vivere questo incubo! 

Speriamo finisca presto e che si ritorni al nostro normale vivere quotidiano. 

Che Dio ci aiuti.... 

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12 Jan 2021

About morphosyntactic

Article by Opinet

The present essay deals with (i) English morphology and syntax, (ii) basic communicative structures, (iii) and students’ progressive use of grammar in their productions with the aim of improving the communicative skills.

As regards morphology and syntax, they are the two basic branches of grammar. Morphology deals with the study of the forms of words, while syntax is concerned with the way words combine to form sentences. In other words, syntax is grammar at the word level and syntax at the sentence level.

Morphology

The basic morphological unit is the morpheme, which is defined as the minimal meaningful unit.. Many basic words such as boy, sad, go, to are morphemes in themselves. Other others such as boys, sadness , going can be broken up into different constituent parts or morphemes. The former are called free morphemes and the latter, the –(e)s, -ing, and –ness suffixes are called bound morphemes because they are necessarily bound (ligadas) to a word.

Bound morphemes are related to two types of morphology : inflectional and derivational  morphology

Inflectional morphology studies the way in which words vary in order to express grammatical contrast. English inflectional morphology affects nouns, adjectives, and verbs.

As regards nouns, the –(e)s morpheme serves to distinguish singular / plural, although there are irregular nouns such as mice, or teeth. But such irregularities are relatively rare (infrecuentes). Some adjectives have inflectional morphemes er / est which are used to express comparative and superlative degree, as in the brighter / brightest.

Regular verbs have three morphemes: -s, -ed and –ing. The morpheme –s attached to a verb signals the third person singular of the present tense. The –ed morpheme has three different variants in the spoken language. These variant forms of a morpheme are known as allomorphs. Compared with Spanish, there are far fewer verb inflections or verb morphemes in English. Addition of inflectional morphemes may cause changes in the spelling of a word: For example, the change of “y” into “i” in the words happy lady / happier ladies. But there is usually no change of meaning, as is the case with derivational morphology.

Derivational morphology studies the principles governing the construction of new words. There are three chief processes in English by which new words are created Affixation, conversion and compounding.

Affixation: includes prefixation (adding prefixes) and suffixation (adding suffixes). In prefixation there is usually no change of word-class.

For example happy and unhappy are both adjectives; the prefix un- simply changes the meaning, making the base word mean the opposite. Sometimes, however, a prefix changes the word-class. For example, the prefix en- in enlarge turns an adjective into a verb. Suffixes, on the other hand, typically change the word-class of the root word.

In the process of conversion: a word changes its class without any change of form.

For example in the sentence “I usually walk though the park when I go for a walk” the first “walk” is a verb, the second is a noun.

Compounding consists in adding one base to another, e.g. blackboard, flowerpot.

Apart from these three major processes, there are other ways of forming new words:

Reduplication: type of compound in which both elements are the same e.g. knock-knock.

Clipping: informal shortenings e.g. flu (influenza), ad (advertisemen).

Blendings: two words merge into one, e.g. smog = smoke + fog.

Acronyms: are formed from initial letters of words. E.g., EU (European Union)

Some English morphemes are used in more than one way. For example, the morpheme –ess is inflectional in the words princess and waitress where it marks a gender distinction, but it is a derivational morpheme in the words whiteness and sadness where it forms a new word, related in meaning but belonging to a different word-class.

Before we move on to syntax, or sentence level, I will briefly mention Quirk ‘s classification of words into two types: open class items and closed class items. The first type refers to a category of words that can grow because more words can be created. They are typically nouns, adjectives and verbs. The second type refers to categories that form “complete sets” and no more can be created. These are typically prepositions (to, with, from, etc), determiners (a, an, the, this, etc), pronouns and modal and auxiliary verbs.

Let us now turn to syntax. Syntax is concerned with the way words combine to form sentences, so we are now concerned with the sentence level of grammar.

According to Quirk and Greenbaum the two basic parts of a sentence are the subject and the predicate:

Subject Predicate

Mary pointed at him.

The Predicate has a close relationship with what is being dealt with, what the sentence is about, and it generally implies that something new is being told about a subject which may have previously appeared in another sentence.

Apart from the basic division into subject + predicate, we can distinguish five elements in the sentence from a syntactical point of view. They are:

Subject (S) – Verb (V) – Complement (C) – Object (O) – Adverbial (A)

I will very briefly explain these constituent parts of the sentence

The subject , unlike Spanish, is always present in English except with an imperative verb, and in one case –the present tense, third person singular- the subject shows number agreement with its verb.

The verb may be transitive or intransitive. In the case of a transitive verb with two objects, one direct and one indirect, there are rules regarding their order depending on whether the objects are nouns or pronouns. We can see this by comparing: He gave the girl the apple (ID + DO) and He gave it to her (DO + ID)

The complement may be subject complement (She looked happy) or object complement (I find him funny)

The adverbial is often an adverb, as in: He left the room quietly but it can also be a prepositional phrase, as in : He left the room in a mess

Not all sentences contain the five sentence elements mentioned, although a typical sentence contains at least two constituents: a subject and a verb.

On the other hand, a sentence may be complex. Compex sentences contain a main clause and one or several subordinate clause. The main types of subordinate clause are:

Nominal or noun-clauses: E.g., I know what you’re thinking. Noun-clauses perform the syntactic roles that are typical of nouns. In the example given the noun-clause –what you’re thinking– is the object of the verb.

Adjectival or relative clauses: E.g., The boy, who was honest, gave the money back. Relative clause are introduced by the relative pronoun who, which, that, whom and whose, and are either defining or non-defining.

Adverbial clauses may express:

Time : The roof leaks when it rains

Reason : I stayed home because it was raining

Purpose : She wore a mask so nobody would recognise her

Condition : I’ll buy you an ice cream if you behave well.

Simple sentences may be classified into four major syntactic types: statements, commands, questions, and exclamations.

statements are also referred to as declarative sentences or declaratives. The usual function of statements is to convey information. E.g. Mary and Mike are getting married next November: These are also referred to as imperative sentences or imperatives. The subject of a command is usually left out, but it is understood as the second person pronoun “you”.

Shut the gate. Be quiet! are examples of commands.
A gentler or more polite form of the command begins with “let’s”:    Let’s have a party.

Commands are common in instructions: E.g., Rub the fat into the flour. Add a small pinch of salt. Mix in the water, and work to a smooth dough, etc in a recipe.

questions are also referred to as interrogative sentences or interrogatives. There are two main types of question:Yes/no questions . These sentences expect “yes” or “no” for an answer.
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4 Jan 2021

Come ha afectado la pandemia a los traductores

Articulo realizado por AseTrad España 

Muchas veces, cuando pensamos en un traductor, nos imaginamos a una persona que trabaja desde su casa sin salir, y, en muchas ocasiones, es cierto: este colectivo está habituado a trabajar a distancia.

En pocas palabras: un trabajo a prueba de confinamiento. ¿Eso significa que están mejor preparados para afrontar el estado de alarma provocado por la Covid-19? No exactamente…

Los traductores siguen siendo necesarios

Por una parte, es cierto que muchos profesionales del lenguaje están trabajando muy duro para asegurar el acceso a información en todos los idiomas posibles, el flujo constante de información veraz para el público y los propios profesionales sanitarios y la traducción de informes, ensayos y todo tipo de documentación medica que conecta a investigadores y médicos de todo el mundo. Bien es cierto que la mayor parte de esta información se comparte en inglés, pero disponer de ella en las lenguas nativas de distintos países asegura una mejor comprensión y una mayor rapidez para trabajar con el material de los ensayos, manuales, etc.

Además, se espera que todos los países colaboren en la lucha contra el coronavirus, por lo que los traductores deben ayudar a que la información pueda llegar a ciudadanos de cualquier país en el idioma que sea necesario.

En este sentido, los traductores trabajan mano a mano con autoridades sanitarias y gubernamentales para facilitar la comunicación. Por ejemplo, en EE. UU. es obligatorio que la información sobre el coronavirus esté disponible tanto en inglés como en español, y en Nueva Zelanda se está traduciendo la información a una gran cantidad de lenguas: maorí, árabe, chino, farsi, francés, alemán, indonesio, italiano, japonés, coreano…

Parece que, por esta parte, la pandemia está siendo más fácil para los profesionales del lenguaje, pero nada más lejos de la realidad…

Los traductores, los grandes olvidados

De acuerdo con los estudios de varias multinacionales de traducción, la industria ya ha experimentado una caída a nivel mundial desde que la OMS declaró la pandemia. Esta situación la sufren especialmente en China, España e Italia, donde, por ejemplo, se estima que se han perdido en un mes 10 millones de euros. No obstante, el virus está afectando nuevos países a medida que avanza el tiempo, por lo que el foco de esta caída en las ventas, previsiblemente, irá cambiando.

El problema es que la traducción depende directamente de empresas que actualmente están organizándose internamente para poder encarar esta crisis sanitaria de la mejor forma posible y que posponen o cancelan sus necesidades de traducción, por lo que se prevé que la demanda de servicios lingüísticos bajará en estos meses.

La situación en incluso peor en el caso de los intérpretes. Marzo suele ser una temporada alta para el mercado de la interpretación, pero los eventos o bien se han cancelado o bien se han pospuesto o ni siquiera han llegado a organizarse. Además, normalmente este tipo de servicios tienen una tasa de cancelación, en caso de que el evento se cancele y el intérprete ya haya reservado la fecha, pero ese un caso de fuerza mayor como este, estas tasas quedan anuladas.

Desde las asociaciones de traductores de España y Galicia , han hecho públicos sus comunicados, en los que muestran su descontento con otro tema muy importante, y es que los traductores e intérpretes no existen como tal a nivel fiscal, ya que son trabajos que se agrupan en otras categorías diferentes. En ningún medio oficial se ha hecho referencia a las dificultades de este colectivo ni a las ayudas o apoyos a los que pueden optar, tanto en este momento de crisis como en el futuro más próximo.

¿Y el futuro?

La parte buena es que, aunque obviamente el mercado es impredecible, se prevé que haya una recuperación de una gran parte de estos proyectos que están quedando temporalmente aparcados, tanto para traductores como para intérpretes. Por ejemplo, en el caso de China, la demanda experimentó una tremenda caída a principios de año, pero ha ido recuperándose en el último mes.

Esta incertidumbre se hace evidente cuando se comenta este asunto entre los colegas del mundo de la traducción, que expresan, por una parte, su inseguridad respecto al futuro de esta situación. Hay algunos traductores que han experimentado un aumento de su trabajo y otros que incluso no han notado ningún efecto, pero la amplia mayoría ha sufrido un parón en seco en su actividad, que esperan poder retomar una vez la situación de emergencia sanitaria mejore.

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1 Nov 2020

Máquina de traducción  Machine translation


🇪🇸Utiliza un software de traducción y traduce este articulo del Ingles al Español, envíamelo y verá la diferencia que hay entre una traducción automática y una profesional... 

🇮🇪Utilizza un software di traduzione e traduci questo articolo dall'Inglese all'Italiano, inviamelo e ti farò vedere la differenza che c'è tra una traduzione automatica ed una professionale...

🇬🇧Use a translation software and translate this article from English to Spanish or Italian,send it to me and I will show you which is the difference between an automatic translation and a professional one... 

Article by J. Hutchins

🇬🇧The idea of machine translation (MT) of natural languages first appeared in the seventeenth century, but became a reality only at the end of the twentieth century. Today, computer programs are widely used to automate the translation process. Although great progress has been made in the field of machine translation, fully automated translations are far from being perfect. Nevertheless, countries continue spending millions of dollars on various automatic translation programs. In the early 1990s, the U.S. government sponsored a competition among MT systems. Perhaps, one of the valuable outcomes of that enterprise was a corpus of manually produced numerical evaluations of MT quality, with respect to a set of reference translations. The development of MT systems has given impetus to a large number of investigations, thereby encouraging many researchers to seek for reliable methods for automatic MT quality evaluation.

Machine translation evaluation serves two purposes: the relative estimate allows one to find out whether one MT system is better than the other, and the absolute estimate (having a value ranging from 0 to 1) gives an absolute measure of efficiency (for example, when equal to unity, it means perfect translation).

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Canarias Living Professional Translations ® Vers. 7.4.2021